Research on Noh costumes in overseas collections: an interdisciplinary view
Leader: NAGASAKI Iwao
Member: WATANBE Masako, DENNY Joyce, KADOWAKI Yukie
Although surveys of Noh masks in overseas collections have made some headway, the little that has been accomplished in the United States with regard to Noh costumes is yet to be matched by anything concrete in Europe. This survey will bring together specialists in the fields of dyeing and weaving history, textile research, Japanese pictorial arts, and the cultural properties of Noh, in order to build a network capable of identifying important collections in overseas museums and undertaking interdisciplinary surveys of their contents, with a view to facilitating a broader appreciation of their value.
Report of the research in 2014
(1-1) Masako Watanabe researched the owner names and locations of nho robe collection in foreign countries. We had the list of its under here.
【England】National Museum of Scotland, Victoria and Albert Museum, Ashmolean Museum
【Austria】Welt museum Wien, MAK
【Italy】Museo Luigi Pigorini, Museod’Arte Orientale, Museo Civico “Pier Alessandro Garda”, Musei Castello.
【USA】The Metropolitan Museum of Art, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, The Art Institute of Chicago,
The Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art, Museum of Art ,Rhode Island School of Design, Arthur M. Suckler Museum, The Philadelphia Museum of Art, Los Angeles County Museum of Art,John Weber Collection,
Iwao Nagasaki and Yukie Kadowaki researched at the Victoria and Albert Museum, London, and the Ashmolean Museum, Oxford, from November 22 through December 2, 2014. Our research yielded the following potential new discoveries.
１． Condition and elucidation of costume for「今様能狂言」(modern Noh and Kyogen)
Nuihaku with design of butterflies in dewy grasses, dias of flowering diamond patterns, cherry rafts, and paulownia with phoenix on a yellow satin ground owned by the Ashmolean Museum (acquired from an auction house in 1989) is considered to date from the mid-18th century of the Edo period. Inscribed in ink on its red plain-weave silk lining is the following: 「六番 林壽三郎所持 (印). This costume was once owned by the actor 今様能狂言, Hayashi Jusaburo, who added Kabuki style. According to earlier studies, the costume probably was the same as or similar to a traditional noh costume.
Its stage crops including costume were not discovered. It was said that Sano Yoshiro of the Hosho school received all the possessions of Hayashi Jusaburo after he died. However, no record of the Ashmolean costume is found in the collection of the Sano Family, which is owned by the noh museum in Kanazawa. This noh costume was a witness that the proper noh costume was actually worn for a play of 今様能狂言(modern noh and kyogen when Hayashi Jusaburo was a leader of the troupe between 1858-1883 until he died.This new discovery is respectively considered to be of scholarly value.
２．A alterpiece (uchishiki) made from a fragment of a Noh costume
The Victoria and Albert Museum owns an uchishiki alterpiecespread woven in karaori with a design of young pines on alternating red, white, and yellowish green grounds. The design and colors of the karaori textile are the same as one owned by Enuma Shrine in Daishoji in Ishikawa Prefecture. This is a possible indication that a noh costume, once probably owned by a daimyo, was recruited to make the uchishiki.
Report of the research in 2015
Iwao Nagasaki, Yukie Kadowaki, and Joyce Denney researched at the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, and the Museum of the Rhode Island School of Design (RISD), Providence, from October 18 through 24, 2015. Our research yielded a potential new discovery at RISD: three costumes may have a provenance of Daimyo Matsudaira of Echizen.
a. Kariginu with design of feather fans and clouds on a dark blue ground
b. Awase Kariginu with design of crests over a cypress fence on a purple ground
c. Awase Happi with design of fret and floral pattern on yellowish green ground
These three have a stitched white silk square label with inscription of numbers and names of objects in ink. Inside of a and b bears 「常磐橋」as a alternated seal as well as a seal in ink. These features can also be observed in textile objects once owned by the Takashimaya Collection, the Matsuzakaya Collection, and the Museum of Hikone Castle. The kanji character 「霊」 in ink, which is also found in some works, is considered a reference to an Edo residence of Echizen Matsudaira such as 「常磐橋」 or 「霊岸島」. The auction catalogue of the Echizen Matsudaira collection in 1929 included a photographic reproduction of c, and captions of a and b. This fact is evidence that the works a, b, and c above have a provenance from the daimyo family of the Echizen Matsudaira. Moreover, the numbers on the wrapping paper of a and b correspond to the numbers on a white silk square, clearly indicating a provenance from the Echizen Matsudaira. Despite a dearth of documentation regarding Noh among the Echizen Matsudaira, our research project will continue to explore documents as well as other textile works relating to the Echizen Matsudaira.
・「The origin of the modern kimono」（メトロポリタン美術館）2014/10/20“Kimono: A Modern History”の関連企画である研究者・専門家向けのシンポジウムにおいて、研究発表を行った。
平成26年9月22日～26日 学術助成 平成26(2014)年度科学研究費（基盤研究C)「ジャポニスム期に流出した在欧州におけるきもの及び日本染織品の保有状況の調査」（研究統括者周防珠実）による
・文化庁海外展『Theatre of Dreams, Theatre of Play: Nō and Kyōgen in Japan』AGSNWシドニー（2014.6.14～9.14／クーリエ並びに図録編集、能面・文献作品解説執筆）
・「Histry of National Noh Theatre Collection」『Theatre of Dreams, Theatre of Play: Nō and Kyōgen in Japan』AGSNW、展覧会関連企画であるシンポジウムにおける研究発表。（2014.8.2）
・「Noh and the Samurai」『Japanese Art at the Time of the Samurai』『Samurai: Beyond the Sword』図録、pp.105~113、デトロイト美術館（2014.3.8～6.1）
・「伝統芸能の紹介に関する一試案 ― 東京オリンピックを視野に入れて」日本音楽芸術マネージメント学会発表（12月7日）
・「The Samurai and Genji monogatari(The Tale on Genji)『Japanese Art at the Time of the Samurai』『Samurai: Beyond the Sword』図録、pp.57~69、デトロイト美術館（2014.3.8～6.1）
・「Luxury and Propriety:Edo-Period Noh Costumes and Samurai Women’s Garments in the Detroite Institute of Arts」『Japanese Art at the Time of the Samurai』『Samurai: Beyond the Sword』図録、pp,115～127,デトロイト美術館（2014.3.8～6.1）
・Lectures and Presentations”The Abduction of Helen (to China): A Seventeenth-Century Chinese Wall Hanging with a European Subject,” The Frick Collection and the Institute of Fine Arts of New York University, annual Symposium on the History of Art, The Frick Collection, New York. （April 26, 2014.）
・「LES COSTUMES DE NO」『DU NO A MATA HARI』 Musée Guimet,・平成27年4月
・Publication“Book review of Kimono: A Modern History by Terry Satsuki Milhaupt, Impressions” The Journal of the Japanese Art Society of America, 36 (2015), 202-211.
In academic 2014 we undertook a survey of Noh costumes in England. Information collected beforehand indicated that there were collections in the Victoria and Albert Museum (London), the Ashmolean Museum (Oxford), and the British Museum (London). On visiting the latter we discovered that, while it has a collection of Noh masks, there are no Noh costumes.
Although the Victoria and Albert Museum holds the largest British collection of textiles, Noh costumes make up only a very minor part. Specimens retaining their original Noh forms number only 1 kariginu, 1 karaori, and 2 atsuita. Fabric fashioned into an ornamental mat was identified as identical to that used in a karaori held by Enuma Shrine, Daishōji (Ishikawa prefecture), from the former collection of Noh costumes of the Daishōji Maeda clan. Also, representing an example typical of Europe under the influence of Japonisme, the collection also includes a courtesan uchikake of black satin
with appliqué of motifs from Kabuki dances of the Shakkyō group.
The Ashmolean Museum holds only 1 nuihaku. Other textiles include 1 nineteenth-century furisode, 1 kesa, and 1 ōhi. An item identified in the catalogue as a “Nuihaku Nō robe with phoenixes and branches,” purchased in 1989, appears to date from the mid-eighteenth century. A note written on its lining indicates that it was once owned by HAYASHI Jusaburō, an actor of the Imayō-nō-kyōgen theatre, popular from the end of the Edo period through the Meiji era. A form of theatre that added Kabuki elements to Noh, it is said to have used Noh or Noh-like costumes. This example illustrates the appropriation of a Noh costume for the Imayō-nō-kyōgen stage.